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Ch/APh 2
Introduction to Energy Sciences
9 units (405)

third term
Prerequisites: Ch 1 ab, Ph 1 ab, Ma 1 ab.
Energy production and transduction in biological, chemical, and nuclear reactions. Bioenergetics: energy sources and storage; components of biological energy flows: pumps, motors, and solar cells; circuitry of biological energy flows and biological energy transduction pathways. Chemistry of energy production and utilization: fossil fuel utilization and energy conversion pathways; artificial photosynthesis, solar cells, and solar energy conversion. Principles of nuclear energy production: nuclear energy decay processes, fission and fusion reactions, and reactor principles. Not offered on a pass/fail basis. Satisfies the menu requirement of the Caltech core curriculum. Not offered 201415.
APh/EE 9 ab
SolidState Electronics for Integrated Circuits
6 units (222)

first, second terms
Prerequisites: Successful completion of APh/EE 9 a is a prerequisite for enrollment in APh/EE 9 b.
Introduction to solidstate electronics, including physical modeling and device fabrication. Topics: semiconductor crystal growth and device fabrication technology, carrier modeling, doping, generation and recombination, pn junction diodes, MOS capacitor and MOS transistor operation, and deviations from ideal behavior. Laboratory includes computeraided layout, and fabrication and testing of lightemitting diodes, transistors, and inverters. Students learn photolithography, and use of vacuum systems, furnaces, and devicetesting equipment.
Instructor:
Scherer
APh 17 abc
Thermodynamics
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 1 abc, Ph 1 abc.
Introduction to the use of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in physics and engineering. Entropy, temperature, and the principal laws of thermodynamics. Canonical equations of state. Applications to cycles, engines, phase and chemical equilibria. Probability and stochastic processes. Kinetic theory of perfect gases. Statistical mechanics. Applications to gases, gas degeneration, equilibrium radiation, and simple solids. Not offered 20142015. APh majors are required to take Ph 12 instead.
APh 23
Demonstration Lectures in Optics
6 units (204)

second term
Prerequisites: Ph 1 abc.
This course cover fundamentals of optics with emphasis on modern optical applications, intended to exhibit basic optical phenomena including interference, dispersion, birefringence, diffraction, and laser oscillation, and the applications of these phenomena in optical systems employing twobeam and multiplebeam interferometry, Fouriertransform image processing, holography, electrooptic modulation, and optical detection and heterodyning. System examples to be selected from optical communications, radar, adaptive optical systems and nanophotonic devices.
Instructor:
Faraon
APh 24
Introductory Modern Optics Laboratory
6 units (042)

third term
Prerequisites: APh 23.
Laboratory experiments to acquaint students with the contemporary aspects of modern optical research and technology. Experiments encompass many of the topics and concepts covered in APh 23.
Instructor:
Faraon
APh 77 bc
Laboratory in Applied Physics
9 units (090)

second, third terms
Selected experiments chosen to familiarize students with laboratory equipment, procedures, and characteristic phenomena in plasmas, fluid turbulence, fiber optics, Xray diffraction, microwaves, hightemperature superconductivity, blackbody radiation, holography, and computer interfacing of experiments.
Instructor:
Bellan
APh 78 abc
Senior Thesis, Experimental
9 units (090)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Supervised experimental research, open only to seniorclass applied physics majors. Requirements will be set by individual faculty member, but must include a written report. The selection of topic must be approved by the Applied Physics Option Representative. Not offered on a pass/fail basis. Final grade based on written thesis and oral exam.
Instructor:
Staff
APh 79 abc
Senior Thesis, Theoretical
9 units (090)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: instructor's permission.
Supervised theoretical research, open only to seniorclass applied physics majors. Requirements will be set by individual faculty member, but must include a written report. The selection of topic must be approved by the Applied Physics Option Representative. Not offered on a pass/fail basis. Final grade based on written thesis and oral examThis course cannot be used to satisfy the laboratory requirement in APh.
Instructor:
Staff
APh 100
Advanced Work in Applied Physics
Units in accordance with work accomplished
Special problems relating to applied physics, arranged to meet the needs of students wishing to do advanced work. Primarily for undergraduates. Students should consult with their advisers before registering. Graded pass/fail.
Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc
Fluid Mechanics
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: APh 17 or ME 11 abc, and ME 12 or equivalent, ACM 95/100 or equivalent (may be taken concurrently).
Fundamentals of fluid mechanics. Microscopic and macroscopic properties of liquids and gases; the continuum hypothesis; review of thermodynamics; general equations of motion; kinematics; stresses; constitutive relations; vorticity, circulation; Bernoulli's equation; potential flow; thinairfoil theory; surface gravity waves; buoyancydriven flows; rotating flows; viscous creeping flow; viscous boundary layers; introduction to stability and turbulence; quasi onedimensional compressible flow; shock waves; unsteady compressible flow; and acoustics.
Instructor:
Shepherd
Ae/APh 104 abc
Experimental Methods
9 units (306 a), (063 b and c)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: ACM 95/100 abc or equivalent (may be taken concurrently), Ae/APh/CE/ME 101 abc or equivalent (may be taken concurrently).
Lectures on experiment design and implementation. Measurement methods, transducer fundamentals, instrumentation, optical systems, signal processing, noise theory, analog and digital electronic fundamentals, with data acquisition and processing systems. Experiments (second and third terms) in solid and fluid mechanics with emphasis on current research methods.
Instructor:
Ravichandran
APh/MS 105 abc
States of Matter
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: APh 17 abc or equivalent.
A survey emphasizing unifying concepts, such as order parameters, scaling laws, quasiparticle excitations, and correlation functions. Topics: longrange ordered states such as crystals, superfluids, and ferromagnets; phase transitions; critical phenomena; ideal classical and degenerate gases; theory of liquids; band theory of solids; fluctuations; noise. Part c taught concurrently with MS 106. Students may not receive credit for both MS 106 and APh/MS 105 c.
Instructors:
Johnson, Fultz
APh 109
Introduction to the Micro/Nanofabrication Lab
9 units (063)

first, second, third terms
Introduction to techniques of microand nanofabrication, including solidstate, optical, and microfluidic devices. Students will be trained to use fabrication and characterization equipment available in the applied physics micro and nanofabrication lab. Topics include Schottky diodes, MOS capacitors, lightemitting diodes, microlenses, microfluidic valves and pumps, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electronbeam writing.
Instructors:
Troian, Ghaffari
APh 110
Topics in Applied Physics
2 units (200)

first, second terms
A seminar course designed to acquaint advanced undergraduates and firstyear graduate students with the various research areas represented in the option. Lecture each week given by a different member of the APh faculty, who will review his or her field of research. Graded pass/fail.
Instructors:
Troian, Bellan
APh 114 abc
SolidState Physics
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ph 125 abc or equivalent.
Introductory lecture and problem course dealing with experimental and theoretical problems in solidstate physics. Topics include crystal structure, symmetries in solids, lattice vibrations, electronic states in solids, transport phenomena, semiconductors, superconductivity, magnetism, ferroelectricity, defects, and optical phenomena in solids.
Instructors:
Atwater, Schwab
APh/Ph 115
Physics of Momentum Transport in Hydrodynamic Systems
12 units (309)

second term
Prerequisites: ACM 95 or equivalent.
Contemporary research in many areas of physics requires some knowledge of the principles governing hydrodynamic phenomena such as nonlinear wave propagation, symmetry breaking in pattern forming systems, phase transitions in fluids, Langevin dynamics, micro and optofluidic control, and biological transport at low Reynolds number. This course offers students of pure and applied physics a selfcontained treatment of the fundamentals of momentum transport in hydrodynamic systems. Mathematical techniques will include formalized dimensional analysis and rescaling, asymptotic analysis to identify dominant force balances, similitude, selfsimilarity and perturbation analysis for examining unidirectional and Stokes flow, pulsatile flows, capillary phenomena, spreading films, oscillatory flows, and linearly unstable flows leading to pattern formation. Students must have working knowledge of vector calculus, ODEs, PDEs, complex variables and basic tensor analysis. Advanced solution methods will be taught in class as needed. Second term is APh/Ph/Ae 116.
Instructor:
Troian
APh/Ph/Ae 116
Physics of Thermal and Mass Transport in Hydrodynamic Systems
12 units (309)

first term
Prerequisites: ACM 95 or equivalent and APh/Ph 115 or equivalent.
Contemporary research in many areas of physics requires some knowledge of how momentum transport in fluids couples to diffusive phenomena driven by thermal or concentration gradients. This course will first examine processes driven purely by diffusion and progress toward description of systems governed by steady and unsteady convectiondiffusion and reactiondiffusion. Topics will include Fickian dynamics, thermal transfer in Peltier devices, LifshitzSlyozov growth during phase separation, thermocouple measurements of oscillatory fields, reactiondiffusion phenomena in biophysical systems, buoyancy driven flows, and boundary layer formation. Students must have working knowledge of vector calculus, ODEs, PDEs, complex variables and basic tensor analysis. Advanced solution methods such as singular perturbation, SturmLiouville and Green's function analysis will be taught in class as needed. First term is APh/Ph 115.
Instructor:
Troian
Ph/APh/EE/BE 118 abc
Physics of Measurement
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ph127, APh 105, or equivalent, or permission from instructor.
This course focuses on exploring the fundamental underpinnings of experimental measurements from the perspectives of responsivity, noise, backaction, and information. Its overarching goal is to enable students to critically evaluate real measurement systems, and to determine the ultimate fundamental and practical limits to information that can be extracted from them. Topics will include physical signal transduction and responsivity, fundamental noise processes, modulation, frequency conversion, synchronous detection, signalsampling techniques, digitization, signal transforms, spectral analyses, and correlations. The first term will cover the essential fundamental underpinnings, while topics in second and third terms will include examples from optical methods, highfrequency and fast temporal measurements, biological interfaces, signal transduction, biosensing, and measurements at the quantum limit.
Instructors:
Roukes, Yeh
MS/APh 120
Diffraction and Structure
9 units (306)

second term
Prerequisites: graduate standing or instructor's permission.
Principles of electron and Xray diffraction with applications to materials characterization. Topics include scattering of electrons, X rays, and neutrons by atoms. Instrumentation for diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Kinematical theory of diffraction: effects of strain, size, disorder, and temperature. Crystal defects and their characterization. Autocorrelation functions in solids and introduction to dynamical theory.
Instructor:
Fultz
MS/APh 122
Diffraction, Imaging, and Structure
9 units (045)

second and third terms
Prerequisites: MS/APh 120, may be taken concurrently.
Experimental methods in transmission electron microscopy of inorganic materials including diffraction, spectroscopy, conventional imaging, high resolution imaging and sample preparation. Weekly laboratory exercises to complement material in MS/APh 120.
Instructor:
Fultz and Garland
APh/EE 130
Electromagnetic Theory
9 units (306)

first term
Electromagnetic fields in vacuum: microscopic Maxwell's equations. Monochromatic fields: Rayleigh diffraction formulae, Huyghens principle, RayleighSommerfeld formula. The FresnelFraunhofer approximation. Electromagnetic field in the presence of matter, spatial averages, macroscopic Maxwell equations. Helmholtz's equation. Groupvelocity and groupvelocity dispersion. Confined propagation, optical resonators, optical waveguides. Single mode and multimode waveguides. Nonlinear optics. Nonlinear propagation. Second harmonic generation. Parametric amplification.
Instructor:
Crosignani
EE/APh 131
Light Interaction with Atomic Systems  Lasers
9 units (306)

second term
Prerequisites: APh/EE 130.
Lightmatter interaction, spontaneous and induced transitions in atoms and semiconductors. Absorption, amplification, and dispersion of light in atomic media. Principles of laser oscillation, generic types of lasers including semiconductor lasers, modelocked lasers. Frequency combs in lasers. The spectral properties and coherence of laser light.
Instructor:
Yariv
APh/EE 132
Special Topics in Photonics and Optoelectronics
9 units (306)

third term
Interaction of light and matter, spontaneous and stimulated emission, laser rate equations, modelocking, Qswitching, semiconductor lasers. Optical detectors and amplifiers; noise characterization of optoelectronic devices. Propagation of light in crystals, electrooptic effects and their use in modulation of light; introduction to nonlinear optics. Optical properties of nanostructures. Not offered 20142015.
APh 150
Topics in Applied Physics
Units to be arranged

first term
Content will vary from year to year, but at a level suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students. Topics are chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Visiting faculty may present portions of this course.
Instructor:
Painter
APh 156 abc
Plasma Physics
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ph 106 abc or equivalent.
An introduction to the principles of plasma physics. A multitiered theoretical infrastructure will be developed consisting of the HamiltonLagrangian theory of charged particle motion in combined electric and magnetic fields, the Vlasov kinetic theory of plasma as a gas of interacting charged particles, the twofluid model of plasma as interacting electron and ion fluids, and the magnetohydrodynamic model of plasma as an electrically conducting fluid subject to combined magnetic and hydrodynamic forces. This infrastructure will be used to examine waves, transport processes, equilibrium, stability, and topological selforganization. Examples relevant to plasmas in both laboratory (fusion, industrial) and space (magnetosphere, solar) will be discussed.
Instructor:
Bellan
BE/APh 161
Physical Biology of the Cell
12 units (309)

second term
Prerequisites: Ph 2ab and ACM 95abc, or background in differential equations and statistical and quantum mechanics, or instructor's written permission.
Physical models applied to the analysis of biological structures ranging from individual proteins and DNA to entire cells. Topics include the force response of proteins and DNA, models of molecular motors, DNA packing in viruses and eukaryotes, mechanics of membranes, and membrane proteins and cell motility.
Instructor:
Phillips
BE/APh 162
Physical Biology Laboratory
12 units (066)

second term
Prerequisites: concurrent enrollment in BE/APh 161; limited to juniors and seniors who have completed the required BE courses.
This laboratory course accompanies BE/APh 161 and is built around experiments that amplify material covered in that course. Particular topics include background on techniques from molecular biology, mechanics of lipid bilayer vesicles, DNA packing in viruses, fluorescence microscopy of cells, experiments on cell motility, and the construction of genetic networks. Not offered 201415.
EE/APh 180
Nanotechnology
6 units (303)

first term
This course will explore the techniques and applications of nanofabrication and miniaturization of devices to the smallest scale. It will be focused on the understanding of the technology of miniaturization, its history and present trends towards building devices and structures on the nanometer scale. Examples of applications of nanotechnology in the electronics, communications, data storage and sensing world will be described, and the underlying physics as well as limitations of the present technology will be discussed.
Instructor:
Scherer
APh/EE 183
Physics of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices
9 units (306)

third term
Principles of semiconductor electronic structure, carrier transport properties, and optoelectronic properties relevant to semiconductor device physics. Fundamental performance aspects of basic and advanced semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Topics include energy band theory, carrier generation and recombination mechanisms, quasiFermi levels, carrier drift and diffusion transport, quantum transport.
Instructor:
Atwater
APh 190 abc
Quantum Electronics
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ph 125 or equivalent.
Generation, manipulations, propagation, and applications of coherent radiation. The basic theory of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with resonant atomic transitions. Laser oscillation, important laser media, Gaussian beam modes, the electrooptic effect, nonlinearoptics theory, second harmonic generation, parametric oscillation, stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering. Other topics include light modulation, diffraction of light by sound, integrated optics, phase conjugate optics, and quantum noise theory.
Instructors:
Vahala, Painter
APh 200
Applied Physics Research
Units in accordance with work accomplished
Offered to graduate students in applied physics for research or reading. Students should consult their advisers before registering. Graded pass/fail.
Ph/APh 223 abc
Advanced CondensedMatter Physics
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ph 125 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Advanced topics in condensedmatter physics, emphasizing the application of formal quantum field theory and group theory methods to manybody systems. Selected topics may include path integral and canonical formalisms, Green's function techniques and Feynman diagrams, Fermi liquid theory, Luttinger liquid theory, symmetry breaking and LandauGinzburg theory of phase transitions, group theory and its applications, field theory for interacting bosons and superfluidity, superconductivity, Kondo effect, Hubbard and tJ models, gauge theory, fractional quantum Hall effect, anyons, and topological field theory.
Instructors:
Alicea, Motrunich
APh 250
Advanced Topics in Applied Physics
Units and term to be arranged
Content will vary from year to year; topics are chosen according to interests of students and staff. Visiting faculty may present portions of this course.
Instructor:
Staff
APh 300
Thesis Research in Applied Physics
Units in accordance with work accomplished
APh 300 is elected in place of APh 200 when the student has progressed to the point where his or her research leads directly toward a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Approval of the student's research supervisor and department adviser or registration representative must be obtained before registering. Graded pass/fail.
Published Date:
July 28, 2022